From Clinical-Developmental Theory to Assessment: The Holistic Student Assessment Tool

  • Gil Noam Harvard Medical School
  • Tina Malti University of Toronto
  • Martin Guhn University of British Columbia


A description and test of the Holistic Student Assessment Tool (HSA), an assessment tool to measure children’s and adolescents’ resiliencies in relation to externalizing
and internalizing problem behaviors. The HSA is based on the authors’ research-based clinical-developmental Clover Leaf Model of resilience and psychopathology, and is one of the first attempts at closing the gap between risk and resilience approaches in developmental assessment. The HSA was tested in a cross-sectional sample of 423 children and adolescents.
The results lend support to the HSA as a valid measure of children’s and adolescents’ resiliencies. Furthermore, the resilience scales mostly exhibited the theoretically
expected convergent and divergent relationships with the psychopathology scales. In addition, we show how the resilience scales predict adolescents’ externalizing and internalizing symptoms. We contend that evidence-based intervention to address youth aggression needs to be based on sound developmental assessment.

Author Biography

Tina Malti, University of Toronto
Focus: Evidence-Based Developmental Prevention of Youth Violence and Bullying...